CO2 Removal and 1.5 °C: What, When, Where, and How?

❓ What is the role of international cooperation in carbon dioxide removal deployment at global scale, to reach the targets of the Paris Agreement?

📄 This study by NEGEM partners Solene Chiquier and Niall Mac Dowell, Imperial College of London, investigates the spatio-temporal potential, composition, and evolution of a portfolio of CDR options (Afforestation/Reforestation, BECCS and DACCS), exploring different climate policy options, while delivering CDR targets that are consistent with the 1.5 °C objective, in the context of 5 regions (Brazil, China, the EU-28, India and the USA).

🤝 International cooperation in climate mitigation policy is key for deploying the most cost-optimal CDR pathways – comprised of BECCS (74%), and AR (26%) in this study.

⏳ 🌐 The spatio-temporal evolution of the CDR pathways deployed in a scenario of strong International cooperation, differs greatly from a scenario where regional allocation of the Paris Agreement’s CDR objectives (based on country’s responsibility for climate change), is prioritized.

⚖ Implementing an international market for negative emissions trading, in which regions most well-endowed with CDR potentials could generate CDR surplus over and above their individual CDR targets, and provide it as a remunerative service to other less well-endowed regions, can deliver cost-efficient and equitable CDR at the Paris Agreement’s scale.

💸 The later such market for negative emissions trading is implemented, the more expensive delivering the Paris Agreement’s CDR objectives would be.

⏩ Swift action towards the establishment and deployment of multi-regional, international, geopolitical and economic instruments for negative emissions trading, and robust institutions to enable their monitoring, verification and accreditation, will therefore be key in delivering the Paris Agreement’s CDR objectives consistent with a global warming of 1.5 °C.

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