Negative Emission Technologies and Practices

Negative Emission Technologies and Practices (NETPs) are a portfolio of mechanisms to remove CO2 from the atmosphere and to permanently store it on land, underground, or in the ocean.

The IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C indicates that the realisation of net zero emission scenarios would be required at latest by 2050, to compensate for residual GHG emissions and temperature overshoot by 2100. All the mitigation scenarios limiting warming to 1.5°C with no or limited overshoot include the use of Carbon Dioxide Removal to achieve net negative emissions.

To date, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) and afforestation/reforestations are the two types of NETPs most often included in all the published pathways.

NEGEM will develop a set of sustainable deployment scenarios, based on a real-world approach and on a systematic quantitative assessment of the following NETPs

Afforestation / reforestation

Afforestation is the planting of new forests on lands that historically have not contained forests, whilst reforestation is the planting of forests on lands that have previously contained forests but that have been converted to some other use. (Source: ippc)

Enhanced weathering

Enhancing the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere through dissolution of silicate and carbonate rocks by grinding these minerals to small particles and actively applying them to soils, coasts or oceans. (Source: ippc)


Is the application of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) to a bioenergy facility (i.e a biomass power plant). Depending on the total emissions of the BECCS supply chain, carbon dioxide (CO2) can be removed from the atmosphere. (Source: ippc)


A stable, carbon-rich material produced by heating biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar may be added to soils to improve soil functions, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from biomass and soils and for carbon sequestration. (Source: ippc)


The process by which (CO2) is captured directly from the ambient air, with subsequent storage. (Source: ippc)

Soil carbon sequestration

Land management changes (such as sustainable soil management farming practices) which increase the soil organic carbon content, resulting in a net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. (Source: ippc)

Ocean alkalinization and ocean fertilization

Alkalinization is the addition of alkaline substances to seawater to enhance the ocean’s natural carbon sink. Fertilization is the addition of nutrients to the near-surface ocean in order to enhance biological production through which additional carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere is sequestered. (Source: ippc)​